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Chicago Style

About Chicago Style Manual


What is Chicago Style?

Chicago/Turabian Style is primarily used for history, but can also be used in other subjects. The Chicago style and the Turabian style are quite similar and often used interchangeably, but they are not identical. Ask your professor or check your syllabus to be sure you're using the right style.

Chicago/Turabian style differs from most other styles:

  • rather than in-text citations
  • superscript numbers in the text of the paper refer readers to notes with corresponding numbers either at the foot of the page (footnotes) or at the end of the paper (endnotes)
  • A bibliography is often required as well.

Chicago Style is in its 17th Edition effective November 2017.

Many of the examples in this guide are from Purdue OWL.

Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, and Vanessa Iacocca, “General Format,” The Purdue OWL,

Chicago Style Resources

Bookmark these sites!

Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL): Chicago Style

Purdue University's OWL gives clear brief examples for Chicago Style. Purdue has updated this resource to the 17th edition. 

Frequently Asked Questions about Chicago Style

A good place to find quick answers to questions such as: How do I format an entry for a book review in my Bibliography? How do I cite a webpage that has no author?

Turabian Citation Guide Information

Complete coverage of citation practices, with detailed information on two main scholarly citation styles (notes-bibliography and author-date), an array of source types with contemporary examples, and detailed guidance on citing online and digital resources

Citation Generators

Many different tools exist to assist you in the process of creating a citation entry. There are advantages and challenges to working with these tools. 

Common mistakes include:

  • Selecting the wrong type of information source
  • Inputting information incorrectly or leaving information out
  • Misplaced or incorrect punctuation
  • Improper capitalization

The biggest mistake is in completely trusting a citation generator to make no errors. Make sure you closely review all citations created in this way. You'll also still want to refer to your citation style guide to learn how to format your works cited/reference page.