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Chicago Style

Quotations, Footnotes & Endnotes

Block Quotations:

  • For block quotations, which are also called extracts:
    • A prose quotation of five or more lines, or more than 100 words, should be blocked. 
    • CMOS recommends blocking two or more lines of poetry.
    • A blocked quotation does not get enclosed in quotation marks.  
    • A blocked quotation must always begin a new line.
    • Blocked quotations should be indented with the word processor’s indention tool. 
  • Page numbers begin in the header of the first page of text with Arabic number 1. 
  • Subheadings should be used for longer papers. 
    • CMOS recommends you devise your own format but use consistency as your guide. 
Footnotes:
  • Note numbers should begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout a given paper. 
  • In the text:
    • Note numbers are superscripted.
    • Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer and should be placed after all punctuation, except for the dash. 
  • In the notes themselves:
    • Note numbers are full-sized, not raised, and followed by a period (superscripting note numbers in the notes themselves is also acceptable).  
    • Lines within a footnote should be formatted flush left. Place commentary after source documentation when a footnote contains both; separate commentary and documentation by a period. 
      • In parenthetical citation, separate documentation from brief commentary with a semicolon.
      • Do not repeat the hundreds digit in a page range if it does not change from the beginning to the end of the range. 

For additional information on quotations, footnotes and endnotes visit - Chicago Manual of Style site - CMOS Shop Talk