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Citations: Chicago/Turabian


Chicago/Turabian Downloadable Quick Guides

Citing in Chicago/Turabian Style

Chicago/Turabian citation style is used primarily in history, but it can also be used for other subjects. Chicago/Turabian style differs from most other styles in that rather than in-text citations, superscript numbers in the text of the paper refer readers to notes with corresponding numbers either at the foot of the page (footnotes) or at the end of the paper (endnotes). A bibliography is often required as well.

The examples in this handout are from the Diana Hacker online guide, and cover the most commonly cited types of sources – books, articles, and websites. For help with citing other types of sources, visit the Hacker website, refer to A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations by Kate Turabian (available in the reference section at the library), or ask a librarian.


Text in the paper:

A Union soldier, Jacob Thompson, claimed to have seen Forrest order the killing, but when asked to describe the six-foot-two “a little bit of a man.”12

Footnote or Endnote:

12. Brian Steel Wills, A Battle from the Start: The Life of Nathan Bedford Forrest (New York: HarperCollins, 1992), 187.

Bibliography entry:

Wills, Brian Steel. A Battle from the Start: The Life of Nathan Bedford Forrest. New York: HarperCollins, 1992.


With an author:

Woods, Mary N. Beyond the Architect’s Eye: Photographs and the American Built Environment. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009.

With an editor or editors:

Beatty, Jack, ed. Colossus: How the Corporation Changed America. New York: Broadway Books, 2001.

ARTICLE FROM AN ONLINE DATABASE (e.g. Academic Search Premier)

Leung, Constant. “Language and Content in Bilingual Education.” Linguistics and Education 16, no. 2 (2005): 238-52. doi:10.1016/j.linged.2006.01.004.


Breen, T. H. “Will American Consumers Buy a Second American Revolution?” Journal of American History 93, no. 2 (2006): 404-8.


Archibold, Randal C. “These Neighbors Are Good Ones without a New Fence.” New York Times, October 22, 2008, sec. A.


Websites often do not have the same information as other sources – some have authors for specific articles or pages, others may not. Some have dates on pages or entries, others may only have a copyright date for the whole site. If you’re not sure how to cite a website, ask a librarian for help.

With an author:

Landow, George P. “Victorian and Victorianism.” Victorian Web. Last modified August 2, 2009.

With no author:

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park. National Park Service. Last modified April 9, 2010.