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APA Style, 7th Edition

in-Text Citations

Basic In-Text Citation Style

When you quote or paraphrase a source, you need to give credit using the appropriate in-text citation

When Paraphrasing:

  • Use a parenthetical citation at the end of your statement, which includes the author last name and year:

Falsely balanced news coverage can distort the public's perception of expert consensus on an issue (Koehler, 2016).

  • Or use a narrative citation if the author's name appears in the text, including only the year in parentheses:

Koehler (2016) noted the dangers of falsely balanced news coverage

In-text citations also vary depending on author type:

Author type Parenthetical Citation Narrative Citation
One Author (Luna, 2020) Luna (2020)
Two Authors (Salas & D'Agostino, 2020) Salas & D'Agostino (2020)
Three or more Authors (Martin et al., 2020) Martin et al. (2020)

Group Author with Abbreviation

First citation

Subsequent citations


(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2020)

(NIMH, 2020)


National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2020)

NIMH (2020)

Group Author without Abbreviation (Stanford University, 2020) Stanford University (2020)

When quoting:

  • If the quote is less than 40 words, incorporate the quote into your paper using quotation marks. After closing your quote, add the parenthetical citation which should include last name, year and the page number of where the quote can be located & place a period at the end:

The item read, "What were the best aspects of the program for you?" (Shayden et al., 2018, p. 304).

Long Quotes (Block Quotations)

Long quotations

If a quotation contains 40 words or more, it should be treated as a block quotation:

Researchers have studied how people talk to themselves:

Inner speech is a paradoxical phenomenon. It is an experience that is central to many people's everyday lives, and yet it presents considerable challenges to any effort to study scientifically. Nevertheless, a wide range of methodologies and approaches have combined to shed light on the subjective experiences of inner speech and its cognitive and neural underpinnings. (Alderson-Day & Fernyhough, 2015, p. 957)

  • The block must begin on a new line
  • The entire block quote must be double-spaced
  • Begin the block by indenting the paragraph 0.5 from the left margin
  • Indent another 0.5 at the start of any additional paragraphs
  • No quotation marks are required for block quotes
  • At the end of the block quote, end with a period, followed by the in-text citation which should include the last name, year and the page number of where the quote can be located. DO NOT put a period after the parenthetical citation‚Äč