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EDUC 9300: Educational Research (Sargent & Hirsch)

Types of Databases: Education

As a rule of thumb you should always select a minimum of two or three databases. Why is this important? All research, even on a specific topic, are not all published in the same source and not all sources in a discipline are all located in the same database. The goal of doing a literature review is usually to find the most relevant (and often times the most current) primary research studies that provide data to help you answer or prove/disprove your research question. In order to do this you never want to limit yourself to using articles from just one journal or even journals/sources from just one database.

As you will discover in this section and in doing your literature review, there are different types of databases and many different types of sources. Databases may differ from each other in what disciplines they cover, what subjects within a specific discipline they cover, what type of sources they provide access to, the specific sources they provide access to, and whether they provide online access to the actual item (full-text article, book, video, et cetera) or provide you just with the citation so that you can request the item through your library. Check out the table below for an example. When searching in multiple databases, you may encounter some duplication of items, but there will also usually be a lot of unique items that are only found in one database and not the others.

I implemented my initial search strategy of (bull* or aggress* or teasing) and (gender or boy* or girl*) and ("middle school*") across the 4 databases listed below, without applying any database limits. In the table below is what I found so you can start to see the differences. When I looked at the top results in each database, there was only 1 article that was found in 2 of the databases and 10 of the articles were unique.

               ERIC                              Education Source Proquest Education Database Academic Search Ultimate

Number of Search Results

479 330 27,431 374
Date Range of Items in My Results List 1912-2018 1981-2018 1979-2018 1994-2018
Source Types in My Results List

Reports (441)

Academic Journals (386)

ERIC Documents (76)

Dissertations (25)

Educational Reports (11)

Books (8)

Academic Journals (298)

Magazines (22)

Book Reviews (5)

Dissertations & Theses (13,064)

Scholarly Journals (10,353)

Trade Journals (2,695)

Newspapers (718)

Magazines (526)

Other Sources (28)

Wire feeds (20)

Working Papers (13)

Reports (8)

Conference Papers & Proceedings (5)

Books (1)

Academic Journals (320)

Newspapers (25)

Magazines (23)

Reviews (4)

Trade Publications (2)

First 3 Items In My Results List

Sugimura, N., Berry, D., Troop-Gordon, W., & Rudolph, K. D. (2017). Early Social Behaviors and the Trajectory of Peer Victimization across the School Years. Developmental Psychology, 53(8), 1447-1461.

Siyahhan, S., Aricak, O. T., & Cayirdag-Acar, N. (2012). The Relation between Bullying, Victimization, and Adolescents' Level of Hopelessness. Journal Of Adolescence, 35(4), 1053-1059.

Kraft, C., & Mayeux, L. (2018). Associations among Friendship Jealousy, Peer Status, and Relational Aggression in Early Adolescence. Journal Of Early Adolescence, 38(3), 385-407.

Nail, P. R., Simon, J. B., Bihm, E. M., & Beasley, W. H. (2016). Defensive Egotism and Bullying: Gender Differences Yield Qualified Support for the Compensation Model of Aggression. Journal Of School Violence, 15(1), 22-47. doi:10.1080/15388220.2014.938270

Sullivan, T. t., Sutherland, K., Farrell, A., Taylor, K., & Doyle, S. (2017). Evaluation of Violence Prevention Approaches Among Early Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Disability Status and Gender. Journal Of Child & Family Studies, 26(4), 1151-1163. doi:10.1007/s10826-016-0629-9

Andrews, N. n., Hanish, L. l., Updegraff, K. k., Martin, C. c., & Santos, C. c. (2016). Targeted Victimization: Exploring Linear and Curvilinear Associations Between Social Network Prestige and Victimization. Journal Of Youth & Adolescence, 45(9), 1772-1785. doi:10.1007/s10964-016-0450-1

Petchauer, E., Bowe, A. G., & Wilson, J. (2018). Winter is coming: Forecasting the impact of edTPA on black teachers and teachers of color. The Urban Review, 50(2), 323-343. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11256-018-0453-1

Ridgeway, M. L., & McGee, E. O. (2018). Black mathematics educators: Researching toward racial emancipation of black students. The Urban Review, 50(2), 301-322. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11256-018-0452-2

Bristol, T. J., & Mentor, M. (2018). Policing and teaching: The positioning of black male teachers as agents in the universal carceral apparatus. The Urban Review, 50(2), 218-234. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11256-018-0447-z

Straatmann, V. S., Almquist, Y. B., Oliveira, A. J., Rostila, M., & Lopes, C. S. (2018). Cross-lagged structural equation models for the relationship between health-related state and behaviours and body bullying in adolescence: findings from longitudinal study ELANA. Plos ONE, 13(1), 1-16. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0191253

Sullivan, T., Sutherland, K., Farrell, A., Taylor, K., & Doyle, S. (2017). Evaluation of Violence Prevention Approaches Among Early Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Disability Status and Gender. Journal Of Child & Family Studies, 26(4), 1151-1163. doi:10.1007/s10826-016-0629-9

Crapanzano, A. M., Frick, P. J., Childs, K., & Terranova, A. M. (2011). Gender Differences in the Assessment, Stability, and Correlates to Bullying Roles in Middle School Children. Behavioral Sciences & The Law, 29(5), 677-694. doi:10.1002/bsl.1000

 

When thinking about the types of databases, one aspect is how many disciplines does it cover.

A Subject Database focuses on one discipline or sub-discipline. ERIC, Education Source and Proquest Education Database are all subject databases focused on the discipline of Education as a whole. Click on their respective tabs above to learn more about each of these subject databases.

  • Advantages to searching a subject database are:
    • The discipline is usually covered in depth.
    • A primary focus of its collection is on professional/scholarly resources created by practitioners and experts in that discipline.
    • You are likely to find primary, original research published here.
    • Subject searching (the way experts in the discipline think and converse about the discipline) becomes a very effective tool once you identify the terminology they are using.
  • Disadvantages:
    • No discipline or topic exists in a vacuum; they often overlap with other disciplines. However, a subject database may not provide any or just a few resources from outside the discipline. A good researcher wants to investigate all aspects relevant to their topic.
    • If you aren't an expert in the discipline or the specific area you are researching, it can be hard to develop a search strategy that yields relevant results right away.  

A Multi-disciplinary Database focuses on at least two different disciplines, but often covers many more. A great multi-disciplinary database is Academic Search Ultimate, covering 21 disciplines. Click on the Academic Search Ultimate tab above to learn more about this multi-disciplinary database.

  • Advantages to searching a multi-disciplinary database are:
    • Provides a good starting point when you are researching a topic new to you. Because it covers multiple disciplines, you usually can find something on your topic.
    • No discipline or topic exists in a vacuum; they often overlap with other disciplines. When you find articles on your topic, you will often see resources from multiple disciplines which can help you identify related disciplines you can explore that you might not have originally thought to check.
    • Keyword searching (the way the non-expert thinks about a topic) can often be more effective when searching across disciplines serving as a tool to find some initial resources that can then help you identify how experts in different fields think and converse about your topic.
  • Disadvantages:
    • It doesn't cover each discipline in depth, in fact, it may only provide a glimpse into the resources of that discipline.
    • It may or may not provide access to the professional/scholarly resources created by practitioners and experts in that discipline.
    • You may or may not find primary, original research published here that relates to your topic.

Another aspect to consider is its content level and the type of sources it provides access to.

Content Levels:

  • Reference databases contain basic level content which can be general or specific to a discipline. Here you will find entries and articles from dictionaries, encyclopedias, directories, et cetera. You will not find scholarly level sources.
  • Research databases often contain a range of content levels and types of sources, sometimes including reference materials and multi-media. As a college student and/or professional you want to be using reliable, authoritative sources such as academic/scholarly journals, peer-reviewed primary research studies, books written by discipline professionals and experts, et cetera.
  • Media databases: Some databases are a collection of images, videos, audio clips, multi-media, newspapers, etc.

Research tip: Look at the criteria for your assignment (whether for school or work) in identifying any requirements as to the types of sources you must use or can't use to help you select a database as well as in forming your search strategy.

  • When doing a research literature review you never want to use reference sources, very rarely do you want to use content from websites unless it is a professional website where they are publishing primary research you can access or newspapers.
  • When doing a research literature review and selecting primary research studies to use, remember to examine it with a critical eye:
    • Is it published in a peer-reviewed, academic/scholarly journal or been presented at a professional conference where it has been vetted by professionals in the discipline?
    • Is the author a practitioner or expert in the discipline? Do they have an educational or special training in that area of study?
    • Analyze the methodology the researcher used. Different types of studies quantitative vs. qualitative measure different things, how participants are selected and the number of participants can impact how the data can be used, did the researcher run the experiment/conduct the survey multiple times (either over time or across different participant groups) or just once, does s/he identify any limits to their study and the data gathered, et cetera.

ERIC stands for the Education Resources Information Center. It is a subject database focused on the field of education. It provides access to two different versions of the ERIC database.

  • ERIC via EBSCOhost is a the library subscription version available to FSU students and faculty, which provides expanded access to full text content and enhanced search functions. This section will focus on using this version.
  • ERIC.ed.gov is the free web version which is open access to anyone for searching, but provides limited access to full text content and has limited search functions.

You can connect to ERIC using the link below or from the Research section of the Library website.

ERIC provides access to information from journals included in the Current Index of Journals in Education and Resources in Education Index. Journals range from academic/scholarly, peer-reviewed, trade publications and popular magazines in the field of Education. It also contains a collection of ERIC documents that include books, conference proceedings, dissertations, education reports and more. The content dates from the present back to 1966.

The database distinguishes articles from other formats by assigning an ERIC number to each item (in parantheses) which is placed at the end of its citation information in your results list. The number always starts with an EJ to indicate that it is an ERIC journal article or ED to indicate that it is an ERIC document. Documents are any format except journal articles. Many of the peer-reviewed, academic/scholarly journals and other online sources provide full-text access in ERIC (EBSCOhost), but if the database indicates that it is only available on microfiche the library has the microfiche collection available in the Periodicals Collection, 2nd floor. If you need an item that is on microfiche or in a print journal, connect to ILLiad (refer to the "Can't Come to the Library?" section for details on ILLiad) to request it. The item will be scanned into a PDF document and posted into your ILLiad account where you can download it.

Special Limit & Search Options - help you refine your search

Most of the research databases, including ERIC, provide limit options that you can use to help narrow your search. Most databases have at least these two limits:

  • Full Text - Check this option if you only want to see the articles that have full text available in that database. When you use this option keep in mind that you may not be seeing some really great articles that you need for your research and you may have access to through one of our other databases, our print collection or our Interlibrary Loans service.
  • Date Range - Use this when you want the database to exclude any articles that are too old to use in your research. Often your professor may state that you can only use materials from the 5 or 10 years.

ERIC and many of our other databases provide additional limits you may want to use such as:

  • Scholarly Journals / Peer-reviewed Journals / Academic Journals (name differs, but they all mean the same thing) - Check this option when you only want to see articles written by professionals in the field which are submitted to the publisher for review by experts in the field before they are published in professional, scholarly journals.
  • Publication / Journal Name - This tells the database to only search within a specific journal for articles on your topic.
  • Image Types - This tells the database to only keep the articles that include images such as pictures, diagrams, charts, etc.
  • Publication Type - You can specify if you only want newspaper articles, journal articles, books, audio files, etc. The type of files you can select from will depend on the type of resources the database contains.

Limits unique to ERIC:

  • Intended Audience - This tells the database to only bring back materials that were written for the audience level you selected such as administrators, teachers, students, parents, researchers, etc.
  • Educational Level - If you select an educational or grade level from this list such as early childhood, middle schools or grade 5, you will only see materials that address that level. The benefit to this limit is you don't need to use a search term to narrow your results down by educational level.
  • ERIC Number - Every document in ERIC whether it is an article, book or some other publication type is assigned a unique ERIC number by the database which you can search by even if you have no other information. If the item is an article published in a journal, the ERIC number starts with EJ. If the item is any other type of document (book, report, speech, etc.), the ERIC number starts with ED.
    Special Search Functions:

ERIC and many of our databases also offer special searching functions which can be really helpful. When you are in a new database click on Help to see what is available. A couple of the functions to look for are:

  • Truncation Symbols - The truncation symbol is usually an asterisk "*". When you have a search term such as teenager you can type in the root of the word followed by the truncation symbol and the database will look for all forms of the word and retrieve the articles. So if you typed in teen* the database would look for teen, teens, teenager and teenagers. It is also great for when you want to get the singular and plural forms of a word. An important thing to keep in mind when using truncation is where you truncate the word and what type of database are you in. For example if you are in an Education database and you type bull*, you will get articles on bullying. However the same truncated search term in a general reference database will get articles on bullying, cows, rodeo, bullets, etc.
  • Wildcard Symbols - The symbol is usually a question mark "?" or a pound sign "#". The symbol substitutes for a letter when you are not sure of the spelling. For example if you are looking for articles written by Ann Reid but you're not sure if her last name is spelled Reid or Reed you can type in Re?d and the database will look for both names.
  • Including Phrases in a Search - Some databases assume that if you type two or more words together and don't separate them by using AND, OR, NOT, that the words should be treated as a phrase. Other databases assume that several words typed together are words to be searched individually, just as is you had typed OR between each one, and need you to tell it by enclosing the words in parentheses or quotation marks that they are actually a phrase.

Thesaurus

The ERIC database provides a Thesaurus. This is an extensive alphabetical list of terms encompassing a wide range of topical subjects in the database. The Thesaurus is arranged in a hierarchy that permits searching various levels of detail from the most general level to more narrow levels to find the most precise concept. Thesaurus entries include 'Use', 'Broader Terms', 'Narrower Terms', and 'Related Terms'.

The authority file provides flexibility in searching. As an alternative to the keyword search mode, the authority file enables the user to search by subject and to combine one or more terms to create more defined searches. Select the Alphabetical option to position the authority file list to the term(s) entered. Select Relevancy Ranked to order search results according to relevance.


You can browse the Thesaurus by clicking on the link in the upper-left corner of the ERIC database screen. This is a great way to find words or phrases to use as your search terms.

Education Source is subject database covering scholarly research and information relating to all areas of education. Topics covered include all levels of education from early childhood to higher education, and all educational specialties, such as multilingual education, health education, and testing. Education Source also covers areas of curriculum instruction as well as administration, policy, funding, and related social issues. The database provides indexing and abstracts for more than 2,300 journals, as well as full text for nearly 1,400 journals. This database also includes full text for nearly 550 books and monographs, and full text for numerous education-related conference papers.

You can connect to Education Source using the link below or from the Research section of the Library website.

Special Limit & Search Options - help you refine your search

Most of the research databases, including Education Source, provide limit options that you can use to help narrow your search. Most databases have at least these two limits:

  • Full Text - Check this option if you only want to see the articles that have full text available in that database. When you use this option keep in mind that you may not be seeing some really great articles that you need for your research and you may have access to through one of our other databases, our print collection or our Interlibrary Loans service.
  • Date Range - Use this when you want the database to exclude any articles that are too old to use in your research. Often your professor may state that you can only use materials from the 5 or 10 years.

Education Source and many of our other databases provide additional limits you may want to use such as:

  • Scholarly Journals / Peer-reviewed Journals / Academic Journals (name differs, but they all mean the same thing) - Check this option when you only want to see articles written by professionals in the field which are submitted to the publisher for review by experts in the field before they are published in professional, scholarly journals.
  • Publication / Journal Name - This tells the database to only search within a specific journal for articles on your topic.
  • Image Types - This tells the database to only keep the articles that include images such as pictures, diagrams, charts, etc.
  • Publication Type - You can specify if you only want newspaper articles, journal articles, books, audio files, etc. The type of files you can select from will depend on the type of resources the database contains.
  • Language - Check this option to specifiy that you only want articles in the lanuage you select. If you choose English, you won't see any article published in French, Spanish, etc.

Special Search Functions:

Education Source and many of our databases also offer special searching functions which can be really helpful. When you are in a new database click on Help to see what is available. A couple of the functions to look for are:

  • Truncation Symbols - The truncation symbol is usually an asterisk "*". When you have a search term such as teenager you can type in the root of the word followed by the truncation symbol and the database will look for all forms of the word and retrieve the articles. So if you typed in teen* the database would look for teen, teens, teenager and teenagers. It is also great for when you want to get the singular and plural forms of a word. An important thing to keep in mind when using truncation is where you truncate the word and what type of database are you in. For example if you are in an Education database and you type bull*, you will get articles on bullying. However the same truncated search term in a general reference database will get articles on bullying, cows, rodeo, bullets, etc.
  • Wildcard Symbols - The symbol is usually a question mark "?" or a pound sign "#". The symbol substitutes for a letter when you are not sure of the spelling. For example if you are looking for articles written by Ann Reid but you're not sure if her last name is spelled Reid or Reed you can type in Re?d and the database will look for both names.
    Including Phrases in a Search - Some databases assume that if you type two or more words together and don't separate them by using AND, OR, NOT, that the words should be treated as a phrase. Other databases assume that several words typed together are words to be searched individually, just as is you had typed OR between each one, and need you to tell it by enclosing the words in parentheses or quotation marks that they are actually a phrase.

Thesaurus

The Education Source database provides a Thesaurus. This is an extensive alphabetical list of terms encompassing a wide range of topical subjects used by the database. The Thesaurus is arranged in a hierarchy that permits searching various levels of detail from the most general level to more narrow levels to find the most precise concept. Thesaurus entries include 'Use', 'Broader Terms', 'Narrower Terms', and 'Related Terms'.

The authority file provides flexibility in searching. As an alternative to the keyword search mode, the authority file enables the user to search by subject and to combine one or more terms to create more defined searches. Select the Alphabetical option to position the authority file list to the term(s) entered. Select Relevancy Ranked to order search results according to relevance.

You can browse the Thesaurus by clicking on the link in the upper-left corner of the Education Source database screen. This is a great way to find words or phrases to use as your search terms.

ProQuest® Education Database gives users access to around 900 top educational publications, including more than 600 of the titles in full text. It offers complete information on hundreds of educational topics, including full text and images from journals such as:

  • Childhood Education
  • College Teaching
  • Harvard Educational Review
  • Journal of Athletic Training
  • Educational Theory

Image articles include all the charts, tables, diagrams, and other graphical elements often used to enhance the editorial value of articles that focus on education topics.

ProQuest Education Database contains journals that cover not only the literature on primary, secondary, and higher education but also special education, home schooling, adult education, and hundreds of related topics with subject coverage on:

  • Adult education
  • Elementary education
  • Higher education
  • Home schooling
  • Secondary education
  • Special needs education
  • Teacher education

You can connect to ProQuest Education Database using the link below or from the Research section of the Library website.

Special Limit & Search Options - help you refine your search

Most of the research databases, including Proquest Education Journals, provide limit options that you can use to help narrow your search. Most databases have at least these two limits:

  • Full Text - Check this option if you only want to see the articles that have full text available in that database. When you use this option keep in mind that you may not be seeing some really great articles that you need for your research and you may have access to through one of our other databases, our print collection or our Interlibrary Loans service.
  • Date Range - Use this when you want the database to exclude any articles that are too old to use in your research. Often your professor may state that you can only use materials from the 5 or 10 years.

Proquest Education Journals and many of our other databases provide additional limits you may want to use such as:

  • Scholarly Journals / Peer-reviewed Journals / Academic Journals (name differs, but they all mean the same thing) - Check this option when you only want to see articles written by professionals in the field which are submitted to the publisher for review by experts in the field before they are published in professional, scholarly journals.
  • Document Features - This tells the database to only keep the articles that include images such as cartoons, maps, etc.
  • Source Type - You can specify if you only want newspaper articles, journal articles, etc. The type of files you can select from will depend on the type of resources the database contains.
  • Language - Check this option to specifiy that you only want articles in the lanuage you select. If you choose English, you won't see any article published in French, Spanish, etc.
    Special Search Functions:

Proquest Education Journals and many of our databases also offer special searching functions which can be really helpful. When you are in a new database click on Help to see what is available. A couple of the functions to look for are:

  • Truncation Symbols - The truncation symbol is usually an asterisk "*". When you have a search term such as teenager you can type in the root of the word followed by the truncation symbol and the database will look for all forms of the word and retrieve the articles. So if you typed in teen* the database would look for teen, teens, teenager and teenagers. It is also great for when you want to get the singular and plural forms of a word. An important thing to keep in mind when using truncation is where you truncate the word and what type of database are you in. For example if you are in an Education database and you type bull*, you will get articles on bullying. However the same truncated search term in a general reference database will get articles on bullying, cows, rodeo, bullets, etc.
  • Wildcard Symbols - The symbol is usually a question mark "?" or a pound sign "#". The symbol substitutes for a letter when you are not sure of the spelling. For example if you are looking for articles written by Ann Reid but you're not sure if her last name is spelled Reid or Reed you can type in Re?d and the database will look for both names.
  • Including Phrases in a Search - Some databases assume that if you type two or more words together and don't separate them by using AND, OR, NOT, that the words should be treated as a phrase. Other databases assume that several words typed together are words to be searched individually, just as is you had typed OR between each one, and need you to tell it by enclosing the words in parentheses or quotation marks that they are actually a phrase.

Academic Search Ultimate is a multi-disciplinary database that offers access to resources cited in key subject indexes.  The combination of academic journals, magazines, periodicals, reports, books and videos meets the needs of scholars in virtually every discipline ranging from astronomy, anthropology, biomedicine, education, engineering, health, law and literacy to mathematics, pharmacology, women’s studies, zoology and more. Content includes:

  • 10,021 active full-text journals and magazines
  • 9,017 active full-text peer-reviewed journals
  • 5,254 active full-text journals indexed in Web of Science or Scopus
  • 67,000+ videos from the Associated Press, this collection of videos from the world’s leading news agency includes footage from 1930 to the present

You can connect to Academic Search Ultimate using the link below or from the Research section of the Library website.

Special Limit & Search Options - help you refine your search

Most of the research databases, including Academic Search Ultimate, provide limit options that you can use to help narrow your search. Most databases have at least these two limits:

  • Full Text - Check this option if you only want to see the articles that have full text available in that database. When you use this option keep in mind that you may not be seeing some really great articles that you need for your research and you may have access to through one of our other databases, our print collection or our Interlibrary Loans service.
  • Published Date Range - Use this when you want the database to exclude any articles that are too old to use in your research. Often your professor may state that you can only use materials from the 5 or 10 years.

Academic Search Ultimate and many of our other databases provide additional limits you may want to use such as:

  • Scholarly Journals / Peer-reviewed Journals / Academic Journals (name differs, but they all mean the same thing) - Check this option when you only want to see articles written by professionals in the field which are submitted to the publisher for review by experts in the field before they are published in professional, scholarly journals.
  • Publication / Journal Name - This tells the database to only search within a specific journal for articles on your topic.
  • Image Types - This tells the database to only keep the articles that include images such as pictures, diagrams, charts, etc.
  • Publication Type - You can specify if you only want newspaper articles, journal articles, books, audio files, etc. The type of files you can select from will depend on the type of resources the database contains.
  • Language - Check this option to specifiy that you only want articles in the lanuage you select. If you choose English, you won't see any article published in French, Spanish, etc.

Special Search Functions:

Academic Search Ultimate and many of our databases also offer special searching functions which can be really helpful. When you are in a new database click on Help to see what is available. A couple of the functions to look for are:

  • Truncation Symbols - The truncation symbol is usually an asterisk "*". When you have a search term such as teenager you can type in the root of the word followed by the truncation symbol and the database will look for all forms of the word and retrieve the articles. So if you typed in teen* the database would look for teen, teens, teenager and teenagers. It is also great for when you want to get the singular and plural forms of a word. An important thing to keep in mind when using truncation is where you truncate the word and what type of database are you in. For example if you are in an Education database and you type bull*, you will get articles on bullying. However the same truncated search term in a general reference database will get articles on bullying, cows, rodeo, bullets, etc.
  • Wildcard Symbols - The symbol is usually a question mark "?" or a pound sign "#". The symbol substitutes for a letter when you are not sure of the spelling. For example if you are looking for articles written by Ann Reid but you're not sure if her last name is spelled Reid or Reed you can type in Re?d and the database will look for both names.
    Including Phrases in a Search - Some databases assume that if you type two or more words together and don't separate them by using AND, OR, NOT, that the words should be treated as a phrase. Other databases assume that several words typed together are words to be searched individually, just as is you had typed OR between each one, and need you to tell it by enclosing the words in parentheses or quotation marks that they are actually a phrase.
  • Cited References links, Unique to Academic Search Ultimate, may appear under some of the items in your results list. Clicking on this link opens the References/Works Cited page for that source and provides full text links to any of the sources that author used that are also available in this database.
  • Times Cited in this Database links, Unique to Academic Search Ultimate, may appear under some of the articles in your results list. Clicking on this link will bring up a list of any articles available in this database that were published after this article that used this article as a resource.

Many databases include an added function to help you cite the sources you use. In most cases, you won't see the citation tools until you click on either the full-text link at access the item or click on the item's title in the results list (this takes you to a Detailed Record page that provides additional information about the item and its source). Whenever you take a citation from a database, ALWAYS check it  for errors. Here is what to look for:

In databases such as ERIC, Education Sources and Academic Search Ultimate databases that we get via EBSCOhost, once you are in the full-text or on the Detailed Record page a Tools bar will appear on the right of your screen. In the middle of the options you have several choices:

  • Cite - clicking on this option pops-up a Citation Format box in the middle of the screen showing the citation for that source in multiple citation styles, simply scroll down to the APA version and copy/paste it into your reference list.
  • Export - clicking on the option allows you to export the citation into RefWorks if you decide to use that research management tool.
  • You can also tell the database to include the APA citation with the article when you email, save or print the item - In the email/save/print pop-up box you must click on the option for Citation Format and then select APA from the drop down menu.

In databases from Proquest such as the Proquest Education Database, you can select one or much items in your results list and then click on the "Cite option in the top right-hand corner (between your search box and your results list). This will pop-up a box showing the items you listed, just click the dropdown menu and select APA 6th edition and click the change button. You can then copy paste those citations into your reference list. As with the EBSCOhost databases, you can also access the "Cite link when you are are in the full-text or on the Detailed Record page (right, upper corner of your screen).