New York Times: Why American Prisons Owe Their Cruelty to Slavery
Business Insider: There's blatant inequality at nearly every phase of the criminal justice system
Racism in Policing
Understanding the Racist Roots of Police Violence
USA TODAY: Not Just George Floyd: Police Departments have 400-year History of Racism
Vox: How racist policing took over American cities, explained by a historian
NPR: The History Of Policing And Race In The U.S. Are Deeply Intertwined
Racial profiling is the practice of targeting or stopping an individual based primarily on his or her race rather than any individualized suspicion (Warren & Farrell, 2009)
A law enforcement practice of using race, ethnicity, national origin, or religious appearance as one factor, among others, when police decide which people are suspicious enough to warrant police stops, questioning, frisks, searches, and other routine police practices (Harris, 2020)
A Conversation With My Black Son
Racial Profiling 2.0
How to Deconstruct Racism, One Headline at a Time
Mass Incarceration (also called mass imprisonment) refers to the current American prison system that is characterized by comparatively and historically extreme rates of imprisonment, specifically the concentration of imprisonment among young, Black and Latino men from disadvantaged neighborhoods (Wildeman, 2012).
Mass Incarceration, Visualized
Mandatory Minimums refers to the legislatively mandated, meaning set by Congress, not judges, minimum prison sentences that are automatically assigned to specific types of crimes, most often drug offenses (FAMM, 2020). The case for mandatory minimum sentences was fairness and uniformity in sentencing across all jurisdiction.
While the use of mandatory sentencing for certain crimes has been in use since the passing of the 1790 Crimes Act, which mandated the death sentence for crimes such as treason (Harris, 2017), the vast majority of prison sentences were primarily the result of discretionary sentencing, where the a judge determines the appropriate sentencing.
How Mandatory Minimums Helped Drive Mass Incarceration
US Anti-Drug Laws Aren't Scientific — They're Colonialist and Racist