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Fake News: Information & Media Literacy

What is Information Literacy?

"Information literacy is the set of integrated abilities encompassing the reflective discovery of information, the understanding of how information is produced and valued, and the use of information in creating new knowledge and participating ethically in communities of learning." ~Association of College and Research Libraries, Framework for Information Literacy

Information Literacy Standards

(Image Credit: UNESCO)


According to the National Association of Media Literacy Education (NAMLE), "media literacy is the ability to access, analyze, evaluate, create, and act using all forms of communication. In its simplest terms, media literacy builds upon the foundation of traditional literacy and offers new forms of reading and writing. Media literacy empowers people to be critical thinkers and makers, effective communicators and active citizens" (NAMLE).

News literacy is often juxtaposed with media literacy as the debate over definitions continues. Stony Brook University's Center for News Literacy defines it as "the ability to use critical thinking skills to judge the reliability and credibility of news reports, whether they come via print, television, radio or internet" (Center for News Literacy). Think of news literacy as a specialized subset of media literacy. Treating them as separate literacies can help emphasize the importance of being able to understand the difference between the news and other forms of media.

Data literacy is an emerging subject of interest with many approaches and definitions. In relation to Information Literacy, a good definition to apply is the "ability to read, work with, analyze, and argue with data" as presented by D'Ignazio and Bhargava (2015, p. 2).

Information & Media Literacy Books & Resources